7 years old Gaurav suffered from frequent attacks of cold and cough. His mother was called by the principal of the school and was told that Gaurav would be removed from school if he did not stop his hyper activities and his teacher complained that he was not attentive in class. His mother told us that Gaurav was a very restless child, who never could sit is one place. He would interfere in other people’s work and would run fearlessly around the class disturbing other students and would jump from benches without fear of being injured. They then took him to a psychiatrist and Gaurav was diagnosed as ADHD child by him. He was put on allopathic medicine after which he became very sleepy. After taking a detailed case history it was found that Gaurav did not fear jumping from a height not normal for his age. Based on his restlessness and fearlessness he was prescribed homoeopathic medicine. After a few months of treatment, he calmed down and gradually his attentiveness in school also improved.
ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder commonly found in children and can continue upto adulthood. The main features of ADHD are Inattention, Hyperactivity and Impulsivity.
ADHD is more common in boys than in girls.
- Inattentionmeans a person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.
- Hyperactivity means a person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity.
- Impulsivitymeans a person makes hasty actions that occur in the moment without first thinking about them and that may have high potential for harm; or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. An impulsive person may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.
Cause of ADHD
Exactcause of ADHD has not yet been established. Following are probable causes of ADHD:
- According to studies, individuals with ADHD do not produce certain chemicals in key areas of the brain that are in charge of organizing our thoughts and behaviour.
- Some studies show that ADHD is more common in children who have close relatives suffering from this disorder.
- Some researches indicate that smoking and drug abuse during the mother’s pregnancy can lead to ADHD in the child.
- Likewise, exposure to pollutants and toxins such as lead could also be a possible trigger for ADHD in the child.
Signs and Symptoms:
Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors, while others have both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Most children have the combined type of ADHD. In preschool, the most common ADHD symptom is hyperactivity. It is normal to have some inattention, unfocused motor activity and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe; occur more often and interfere with or reduce the quality of how they functions socially, at school, or in a job.
Inattention: Patients with symptoms of inattention may often:
- Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities
- Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading
- Not seem to listen when spoken to directly
- Not follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily sidetracked
- Avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers
- Lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones
- Be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli
Hyperactivity-Impulsivity: People with symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity may often:
- Fidget and squirm in their seats. Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor”
- Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or in the office
- Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless
- Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly
- Talk nonstop
- Blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in conversation
- Have trouble waiting his or her turn
- Interrupt or intrude on others, for example in conversations, games, or activities
- Nurture your child’s interests and augment your child’s self esteem
- Behavioral therapyis a type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change his or her behavior. It might involve practical assistance, such as help organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy also teaches a person how to monitor his or her own behavior and give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way, such as controlling anger or thinking before acting.
- Stress management techniquescan benefit parents of children with ADHD by increasing their ability to deal with frustration so that they can respond calmly to their child’s behavior.
Parents and teachers can help kids with ADHD stay organized and follow directions with tools such as:
- Keeping a routine and a schedule. Keep the same routine every day, from wake-up time to bedtime. Include times for homework, outdoor play, and indoor activities. Keep the schedule on the refrigerator or on a bulletin board in the kitchen. Write changes on the schedule as far in advance as possible.
- Organizing everyday items. Have a place for everything, and keep everything in its place. This includes clothing, backpacks, and toys.
- Using homework and notebook organizers. Use organizers for school material and supplies. Stress to your child the importance of writing down assignments and bringing home the necessary books.
- Being clear and consistent. Children with ADHD need consistent rules they can understand and follow.
- Giving praise or rewards when rules are followed. Children with ADHD often receive and expect criticism. Look for good behavior, and praise it.
A professional counselor or therapist can help an adult with ADHD learn how to organize his or her life with tools such as:
- Keeping routines
- Making lists for different tasks and activities
- Using a calendar for scheduling events
- Using reminder notes
- Assigning a special place for keys, bills, and paperwork
- Breaking down large tasks into more manageable, smaller steps so that completing each part of the task provides a sense of accomplishment.