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Diabetes - Types


Type 1 or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile onset diabetes

Individuals with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin because the body's immune system destroys insulin producing cells (called beta cells) in the pancreas. This usually occurs during childhood or at a very young age. Such patients need their entire supply of insulin from external sources to keep their blood glucose levels normal.

Type 2 or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity onset diabetes

A vast majority of diabetes patients belong to this category. In this type, the body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into the cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. It is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolises sugar (glucose), your body's important source of fuel.

Type 2 or Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) or maturity onset diabetes

Insulin resistance worsens as weight increases and physical activity decreases. Many individuals with type 2 diabetes lead sedentary lifestyles, and are obese; they weigh at least 15-20% more than what is recommended for their height and build. Some individuals with type 2 diabetes may require insulin injections, but most can control the disease through a combination of weight loss, exercise, and doctor-prescribed oral diabetes medication.

Gestational diabetes

In the third trimester of pregnancy, about 5% pregnant women develop a form of diabetes called gestational diabetes. Blood glucose levels return to normal on their own after delivery. However, studies have shown that about 40% women with gestational diabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 15 years. All pregnant women should be tested for diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks.

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